Monthly Archives: April 2017

Crucible Induction Melting Electric

Induction crucible furnace designed for melting and overheating of steel and cast iron. Possible melting of nonferrous metals (bronze, brass, aluminum) and their alloys in a graphite crucible. It is used in foundries, steel factories, workshops precision casting and repair shops engineering plants to produce steel castings of high quality. Induction heating – heating bodies in an electromagnetic field due to the heat of the vortex electric currents flowing through the heated body and excited in him due to the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. When the current in the heated product is called induced or induced current. Induction units called electrothermal devices for induction heating or melting metals. Induction furnace, induction melting furnace – electrothermal equipment for melting materials with using induction heating.

Induction furnace operates on the principle of the transformer, whose primary winding is water-cooled coil, secondary, and at the same time load – located in the crucible of metal. Heating and melting of the metal takes place due to the currents flowing in it, which is caused by the electromagnetic field generated by the inductor. Electric consists of the smelting unit and equipment set. Melting unit is designed in a supporting frame consisting of two racks welded construction site "setting inductor" and the two hydraulic rams. Inductor consists of two sections, each of which a multiturn coil water-cooled, made of copper rectangular tube. Supply to the inductor power and water by using water-cooled flexible cables connected to it sequentially.

Hydraulic rams provide slope to drain metal furnace at an angle of 95 for 20 seconds. Managing tilt the furnace by an electric control valve, control panel, the slope of the furnace installed on site. Induction furnace is fed from the network through thyristor frequency converter TPCH, which is designed to convert three-phase industrial frequency AC high frequency. The main advantage of thyristor Electrically before is because of the lack of no-load losses reduced potreblaemaya power, increased efficiency, lower operating costs. Supply voltage converter comes from the transformer. Electric power is controlled by changing the voltage at the output of the converter and automatic frequency control in the smelting process. On front of the transducer placed controls, security alarm and control of the converter. In the control cabinet and authorities are signaling the remote control thyristor converter and control equipment and alarm systems. The cabinet mounted cooling water monitoring sensors and alarm systems cooling electric furnaces and condensers. Status of the lining of the crucible is monitored visually and by periodic measurements of the inner diameter of the crucible. Control over the work by using electric instruments and controls, located on the cabinet front panel controls and alarm systems. Main advantages of induction melting furnaces ITPE: In the manufacture of ovens used new clean and high quality materials, asbestos is not used. More robust components – Czech and German mid-capacitors. In furnaces used reliable thyristor frequency converters a new generation of automatic frequency control during melting. High power of fusion. Calculated and optimized selected inductance of inductors and trunk capacity of capacitor banks, the losses in the furnace circuit is minimized, resulting in achieved: higher productivity, greater efficiency in energy consumption, higher efficiency furnaces. In the production of electric current applied advanced technology. Rods of hydraulic cylinders are protected from the metal spray. Significantly increased and reliable operation of the furnace. Increased safety of operation of furnaces. In the design and manufacture of products focused on improving the effectiveness of protection equipment, and accordingly it standards of safety.

Maintenance, Diagnosis And Repair Of Centrifugal Machines

Maintenance of centrifugal machinery in the chemical and petrochemical production is based, as a rule, on the application of the planned preventive maintenance (BPD). Repair of equipment for This is carried out in accordance with the schedule of cpd a year or more. A major shortcoming of this service is that each of the centrifugal machine has certain peculiarities design and operation, so its failure may occur long before the date of repair, planned in accordance with the spr, and vice versa, the equipment is often displayed in the repair of prematurely when the resource of its elements have not yet worked out. To ensure trouble-free operation of machinery with a simultaneous increase in its turnaround, as well as to reduce operating costs appropriate to transfer technology installation on-condition maintenance, ie, the system of planning and diagnostic repairs (SPDR). This article is devoted to problems of organization of operation, diagnosis and repair of centrifugal machine equipment of refineries on the technical condition. First of all, the article applies to maintenance of centrifugal compressor machines (CCM), centrifugal pump units (TsNA), centrifugal ventilation units (CVA), blowers, smoke exhausts, superchargers, air coolers, motors, drive turbines, operated in routine conditions. Maintenance and repair of machinery equipment maintenance as a single interconnected system, which includes: – every shift system maintenance, monitoring and recording of equipment, conducted on place of operation – the system of continuous and periodic monitoring of the characteristics that define the technical conditions – the system output in the repair and determine its extent on the parameters of technical condition of the centrifugal machines – a system of accumulation, analysis and processing of diagnostic information for the timing of the withdrawal in the repair and determine its volume. .

Classification Criteria For ACS

ams classification strongly depends on the classification criteria. By the form used by the control device information distinguish open and closed ACS: in open systems there is no feedback between the output of control object and the input control device. In such systems, value-driven not controlled. If there is a feedback facility management and control unit form a closed loop provides automatic monitoring of control object. By the nature of changes in the driving influence of acs can be attributed to the following types: automatic stabilization, giving the effect that constantly, and these systems are designed to maintain consistency of some physical parameter (temperature, pressure, speed, etc.), program control, giving the effect that changes in any previously known to the law (for example, a given program can be modified speed motor drives, change the product temperature during heat treatment, etc.) tracking, giving the effect which varies according to the arbitrary, a priori unknown to the law (used to control the parameters of the control objects in the external conditions). In recent years, are becoming increasingly important adaptive control systems, characterized by action on the object of management of any completely unknown factors. As a result, the need to solve the control problem under uncertainty of input data for decision on control actions. These systems can adapt to environmental changes and the object management, and improve its performance as experience is gained, ie information on results management.

In turn, adaptive process control are divided into: the optimal, which provide automatic maintenance of the facility management of most advantageous mode, self-tuning, the parameters of the control object which is not remain unchanged, and converted to a change in external conditions, self-organizing, algorithm which does not remain unchanged, but improved when the parameters of the object management and external conditions, self-learning, which analyze the experience gained object management and on this basis will automatically improve its structure and method .Po nature of the acs is divided into continuous and discrete actions. In the continuous process control for continuous variation of the input signal also varies smoothly and the output signal. In the discrete process control for continuous variation of the input signal output signal changes abruptly. Management methods based on the use of digital technology, always lead to discrete control systems. By the nature of change the tone settings of acs can be divided into linear and nonlinear, steady and unsteady. By number of parameters themselves ams are one-dimensional or multidimensional (multiparameter). It should be noted that the classification of the acs can also be constructed on the basis of other criteria, for example, can be classified by acs the physical nature of the system or its major parts, the power actuator, etc. Each of these methods of classification of acs is often independent of the others. This means that each of them can be represented as a scale in a multidimensional phase space, while the specific process control in this space will correspond to points or certain areas.

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