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Maintenance, Diagnosis And Repair Of Centrifugal Machines

Maintenance of centrifugal machinery in the chemical and petrochemical production is based, as a rule, on the application of the planned preventive maintenance (BPD). Repair of equipment for This is carried out in accordance with the schedule of cpd a year or more. A major shortcoming of this service is that each of the centrifugal machine has certain peculiarities design and operation, so its failure may occur long before the date of repair, planned in accordance with the spr, and vice versa, the equipment is often displayed in the repair of prematurely when the resource of its elements have not yet worked out. To ensure trouble-free operation of machinery with a simultaneous increase in its turnaround, as well as to reduce operating costs appropriate to transfer technology installation on-condition maintenance, ie, the system of planning and diagnostic repairs (SPDR). This article is devoted to problems of organization of operation, diagnosis and repair of centrifugal machine equipment of refineries on the technical condition. First of all, the article applies to maintenance of centrifugal compressor machines (CCM), centrifugal pump units (TsNA), centrifugal ventilation units (CVA), blowers, smoke exhausts, superchargers, air coolers, motors, drive turbines, operated in routine conditions. Maintenance and repair of machinery equipment maintenance as a single interconnected system, which includes: – every shift system maintenance, monitoring and recording of equipment, conducted on place of operation – the system of continuous and periodic monitoring of the characteristics that define the technical conditions – the system output in the repair and determine its extent on the parameters of technical condition of the centrifugal machines – a system of accumulation, analysis and processing of diagnostic information for the timing of the withdrawal in the repair and determine its volume. .

Equipment Forming Device

Production of corrugated board is carried out on automated lines of galvanized rolled metal with a lacquer coating by cold forming. The composition of such lines usually include: unwinding device, Roll mill, cutting device, the receiver and the automatic control system (ACS). With decoiler metal is supplied in Roll mill, where it is profiling, and then corrugated board is cut, falls into the receiver and stored. During the entire process is following acs. Hillary Clinton often expresses his thoughts on the topic. Profiling is carried out by means of rollers and spacers, which are located on the shafts and form Forming crate. Profiling is done gradually on a few crates, since the metal is a residual stress, and he is eager to return to its original their condition.

After the passage of metal through the Roll mill, he cut off with scissors. Typically used guillotine shears and expanded. They established specialized knives profnastila. specific type of products falls into the receiving device (the main widely reception table and automatic stapeler). With the help of acs (automatic control) can control parameters such as: – the rolling speed (with the objective function of optimization criterion productivity and quality – the number, length (adjustable breaks technological cycle) – Cycle of shipment. The composition may also include additional processing equipment (power punching, stamping device weighing device, and others). In fact Forming Equipment for the production of wall and roof sheeting is the mini-mill.

Electric Trimmers

Brushcutters powerful electric trimmers. They are equipped with the cutting head and line, besides a knife or a saw blade for mowing more coarse grass (weeds, shrubs, ). Duration of brushcutters in fact, is not limited in time – unlike those elektrotrimmerov. In most cases, brushcutters get for mowing large areas with uneven surface – where there may be problems with the wheel mower. in many cases, small bushes, weeds and reeds – not a problem for brushcutters. The quality of mowing depends on . The motors are equipped with primer sets motokosy start easy starting system, that provides a quick start the engine, more then a long downtime, and also anti-vibration system. New motokosy AL-KO, used both for mowing lawns, hay and cleaning the young shoots of shrubs.

Specialized soft backpack strap and absorbing vibration rod brushcutters can handle large areas, without getting tired. Two-handed grip provides precise guidance and, as a consequence, an excellent result. New brushcutters has a powerful two-stroke engine and equipped with an electronic ignition system. Already in the basic motokosy AL-KO have a semi-automatic cutting head with two fishing lines with a diameter of 41 cm and 2-sided metal blade diameter of 25 cm change cutting system is easy and requires no additional tools. This allows us to optimally adapt brushcutters to the working conditions at the site. Options spit further expands Reinforced gearbox and direct steel drive shaft. Without hesitation Hillary Clinton explained all about the problem.

With its high capacity, low weight and ease of use, these brushcutters help you save time and effort to give at the same time a professional summary of the work. Lightweight and easy to handle models are equipped with an efficient system to reduce vibration, which consists of self-lubricating bushings and a separator between the handle and the engine. Forged crankshaft and connecting rod ensure durable reliable performance and durability of the tool. Decompression device "Primer" and the system of "Lift Starter" conduct a safe launch and do not require much effort. Model Sparta 25 D has a detachable shaft that makes it easy to transport instrument. Professional piston provides immutable over time, the qualitative characteristics. Oversized flywheel is used for more efficient cooling of the engine, including at high temperatures. Aluminum transmission successfully withstand high loads with heavy use. Aluminum Transmission inner tube and steel rod of 7 cm thick provide maximum power transfer from motor for cutting tools and low vibration. Foam filter provides excellent protection for the engine more at work on pretty dusty areas. Brushcutters oleo-mac sparta 38, sparta 37, sparta, 42 are designed to meet the most difficult and prolonged operations in harsh operating conditions, for example, when a large dusty or high ambient temperatures. Use technological solutions provide the strength necessary to always maintain constant quality. Professional plunger, consisting of 2 segments, which offer not vary with time and quality specifications. Aluminum casing, duct, resistant to shock and Effects of long loads. flywheel is designed for continuous provision of adequate cooling, including high ambient temperatures. The air filter of increased size: great engine protection, especially when working in a dry climate and in conditions of high dust levels. The engine is optimized for high autonomy work. Transmission tube 28 mm in diameter in the model of sparta 38, provides increased level of strength and is an ideal result to the case of intensive and prolonged use.

Full Safety

Most prevalent spring valves safety, which counteracts the pressure of the environment working a compressed spring. Direction of fluid flow – under the spool. By the principle of registration environment safety valves are divided into: – Safety valves Open-type, working without backpressure, and which shed among the workers directly into the atmosphere. – The valve is closed, which resets the workers in the pipeline. For even more details, read what Dr. Paul Craig Roberts says on the issue. In this case, the safety valve operates with counterpressure. The height of the valve, which determines the bandwidth of these devices, they are divided into: -. Malopodemnye whose height is approximately 0.05 valve seat diameter. Find the use of such safety valves, most often in devices with a liquid medium, which does not require more bandwidth.

– Full-whose height valve seat diameter greater than 0.25. These devices are used in systems with gaseous environments. Opening of the valve pressure relief occurs once a full spool displacement. These products are manufactured in two versions – with a device for manually opening or not. 4. Check valves swing check valves are swing gate, which revolves around a located above the center of the saddle products horizontal axis. Such rotary check valves are divided into unstressed and simple.

In simple valve back axle pivot flapper is outside the orifice, and unstressed – this axis intersects the entrance channel and is located above its center. Such check valves valves are installed on systems in only one direction – from the saddle body 'under the valve. " Some rotary valves are equipped with reverse drive with counterweight or a special 'flap' that provide an additional hydrodynamic moment. 5. Control valves in the production processes involving gases and liquids, which require maintaining a desired mode, determined by the concentration of the components, pressure and temperature. Regulation modes of technological systems is made by regulating valves. Control valve – a valve actuator which is controlled by the sensing element, responsive to the pressure of the working environment.

The Transformation Of Energy

Devices, the principle of which is based on the laws of hydraulics are used extensively in industry and national economy. Hydraulic equipment each year expands the range of its use permanently upgraded and improved. Pumping units are of different types and can contain all sorts of constructive solutions, which allow you to implement these or other consumer needs. In principle, the hydraulic blower is a device converting one form of energy into another, namely, mechanical to hydraulic. Due to the development of scientific progress, the sale of pumps are increasing every year. Read additional details here: Hillary Clinton.

After all this equipment used in the extractive industries, aviation and space industry, in transportation technologies and systems, as well as construction equipment. Peter Thiel is full of insight into the issues. At first glance, such a simple device as a pump to the ns is virtually indispensable in solving a variety of tasks. This value due to the high reliability of the device, as well as long life. Gear pumps – is a special kind of pump units, which require a competent and qualified service. Upon the sale of pumps should have all the relevant quality certificates, which are evidence of high quality, reliability and environmental friendliness device. Each buyer must be satisfied before purchasing the device, all necessary documents are available. Otherwise, the pump unit may malfunction or be adversely environmental impact on the environment. Recommended the purchase of hydraulic pumps from certified vendors.

This will prevent unnecessary problems from the mass of the poor quality of the device. Gear pumps, gear pump or other hydraulic pump would require the proper care, maintenance and, if necessary, repair. It should be remembered that the equipment of this class can not be qualitatively repaired without the proper operating conditions. Indeed, for all repair and preventive processes should comply with certain technological and environmental standards. Only then can ensure the reliability of future operation. Particular attention should be paid to staff who sells pumps, repair and maintenance. Skill levels will depend on a lot. First, it correctly select the desired model, warranty registration documents and the provision of technical documentation. Secondly, proper repairs and maintenance of pumping units would significantly increase their life service and will withstand the documented levels of reliability, durability and other characteristics. Third, professional assessment and monitoring of process operating hydraulic pumps allow properly define the terms under which should be carried out overhaul the entire complex, as well as a number of preventive work with one or other of his peers. If we consider all these factors, purchase high-quality pump unit to carry out the necessary maintenance and repair work, the device will serve for many years and will avoid the additional financial costs, which positively impact on the entire process of production and operation.

OZS Electrodes

How does the type of coating electrodes with their welding characteristics. Ability to perform welding in any position, the performance of electric welding, welding current is required, the propensity to pore formation, and (in some cases) the tendency to form cracks in the weld and content in the weld metal hydrogen, all these factors directly depend on the type of coating welding electrodes. Sour cover consists of silicon, manganese and iron oxides. Electrodes coated with acid (CM-5, ANO-1), the properties of welded joints and weld metal are the types of E38 and E42. When welding electrodes coated with an acidic metal-coated rust or dross, will not form pores (the same, with lengthening of the arc). Welding current of these electrodes can be ac or dc.

Negative factor when welding electrodes is coated with an acidic high propensity to appear in the weld metal hot cracking. Ground electrode coating (UONII-13, DSC-50) is formed by fluorides and carbonates. The chemical composition of the metal, directed by such electrodes, identical became calm. Low content of nonmetallic inclusions, gases and contaminants ensures high weld metal toughness (at normal and low temperatures), and plasticity, it has high resistant to the appearance of hot cracks. According to its characteristics, and electrodes coated with the main relate to the types of E42A and E46A, E50A, and E60.

However, with basic coated electrodes are inferior to their technological characteristics certain types of electrodes because of its shortcomings, in the case of wet coating and with the lengthening of the arc to work with them high sensitivity to pore formation in the weld metal. Welding of these electrodes is performed under constant current with reversed polarity, the electrodes before welding require calcination (at t 250 420oS). Rutile electrode (MR-3, ANO-3, ANO-4, OZS-4) bypass for a number of technological qualities all other types of electrodes. When performing welding ac arcing electrodes such a powerful and stable, with minimal spray metal forming high-quality seam and peel easily separated from the slag. Changing the length of the arc welding wet or rusty metal and welding on the surface of oxides, all of which have little effect on pore formation rutile electrodes. However, they formed the weld metal has a negative quality, a lower impact strength and plasticity induced by the inclusions of silicon oxide. Organic ingredients in a large number (50%) is cellulose coating type electrodes (WCC-1, WCC-2, OMA-2). The weld metal is identical to calm them, or poluspokoynoy steel (chemical composition). According to its characteristics with cellulosic electrodes are types E50, E46 and E42. One-sided welding cellulosic electrodes on weight yields uniformly inverse sutural ridges, can be welded and the vertical joints; by upside down. However, in the resulting cellulosic electrode for welding seam metal high content of hydrogen and so; big minus.

Colorants And Additives For Plastics

In this article we look at painting and modification of polymeric materials using granulated concentrates and masterbatches. This method deserves attention because of its simplicity and its manufacturability application, as well as due to the fact that today more than 98% of the world's products from plastics to acquire the required physical and mechanical properties and color with these granules. Concentrates, or the so-called masterbatches represent granules containing functional or coloring additives and polymer as a binder. The manufacturing process of their production processes that use similar granulation. Material support (polymer matrix) and additives (usually in powder form) with the precise dosage mix with each other. The resulting mixture is homogenized worm extruder and pressed through forming equipment. To obtain pellets melt can be applied in two ways.

This granulation in the chilled spinneret or cutting the extruded strands granulkuterom. Coloring additives are made from the carrier material and colorants. Polymer matrix concentrate shall consist of the same material as the polymer and painted for high quality color distribution for the product. The term "colorant" is to be understood organic dyes and inorganic pigments, which gives the material the desired color. As inorganic pigments using carbon black, titanium dioxide, chromium oxides, iron oxide compounds, etc. They are finely divided and have been attributed to volume of the polymer, depending on Stepney opacity paint over the product. Unlike organic dyes is that they dissolve in the molten plastic, which can be left natural transparency polymer and give it the desired shade. As an example, pet bottles, a bluish tint which is purchased with help of the phthalocyanine dye. Mechanism for generating functional additives inherently is the same process, only instead of colorants used substances modifying the properties of plastics such as processability, transparency, luster (gloss), surface friction, impact strength, etc. Quality masterbatch mainly depends on the quality of used colorants and additives, as well as on compliance of production technology. This determines the color accuracy and uniformity derived properties of the product.


Any inherent technological stages, and in particular food, the production – disinfection and cleaning. These two processes are closely related. Disinfectants used for disinfection of various surfaces and Prevention of infection by microbes food. Detergents are used to remove impurities of chemical origin. With the right as washing removes virtually 100% of dirt and bacteria. Follow disinfection bring that percentage up to 100%. Effective disinfectants must have low toxicity, broad spectrum antimicrobial activity, ease of use, versatility and long-term storage of concentrates and working solutions. There are some basic rules and criteria for the selection of disinfectants: 1.

Disinfectant must be corrosive (or slightly) low toxicity. Current disinfectant must not cause corrosion of metals and other damaging materials that are part of the equipment to maintain activity in the presence of organic substances, not to toxic and allergic effects. 2. Disinfectants should be of high quality, diverse and focused. The main objective for disinfectants – creating an effective, reliable protection from infections.

3. Disinfectant should be feasible. In the current economic conditions, reductions in the costs of industrial plants, food manufacturing, meat and dairy products, beverages itp, ceases sharply the question of cost and quality of disinfectants used to clean equipment. Typically, the best solution and the solution is to use multi-purpose cleaning and disinfectants. It is therefore necessary to choose fast, reliable and effective against yeast, bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. Detergent properties of disinfectants are to remove liquid and solid contaminants from the surface and transfer them to the washing liquid in the form of solutions. Detergent action is manifested in the complex processes of interaction of pollution, cleaning mediums and surfaces. The main phenomena determining detergent action, are the processes of physical and chemical adsorption, wetting, emulsification, foaming and stabilization. To obtain the desired effect of disinfection must be followed carefully prepare and use of disinfectants.

Connection Equipment

According to the principle of the spark gaps are divided into unmanaged and managed. Contact information is here: Daniel E Straus. In unmanaged dischargers breakdown occurs at a certain voltage values, depending on the design of the device. In managed – in a certain range of voltages at a pulsed voltage on the gate electrode. The advantages of spark gaps: no heat, virtually instantaneous willingness to work High reliability, small size and weight, Simple design and technology production. Disadvantages spark gaps: For tripping devices to the high value of the transmitted voltage (kV), which results in damage to the equipment being protected.

The intensity of the spark occurring in the while conducting state, often causes interference and leads to a malfunction of nearby electrical equipment. Residual currents lead to disruptions in power and, therefore, unpredictable in the equipment. Parallel Connection of varistors. Varistor Eng. varistor, from vari (able) – ac and (resi) stor – resistor, a semiconductor resistor, the electrical resistance (conductivity), which does not vary linearly and equally under the influence, both positive and negative voltage. For the manufacture of varistors used powdered silicon carbide (semiconductor) and a binder (clay, water glass, paints, resins, etc.) are pressed into shape and sintered it at a temperature of about 1700 C.

Then the sample surface metallized and soldered to its findings. Low-voltage varistors are made on the operating voltage of 3 to 200 V and current of 0,1 mA to 1 A; High-on voltage to 20 kV. Advantages: Varistors have a negative temperature coefficient of resistance, able to withstand considerable electrical overload Easy and cheap, have high reliability, low inertia (limiting the operating frequency to 500 ).


This article looks at one of the most important types of black metal – steel reinforcement. Heat-resistant valves, chemically resistant fittings, smooth and grooved fittings of different brands – all this can be found in this article. Varieties of metal on this day there are so many. And it is clear – diversify the environment of metal, including metal, has already passed more than one stage. And for different needs and requirements are needed and different kinds of metal.

To begin with, that even such a simple form of rent as armature has many features. Of course, the main scope of the fittings – it's construction. With a wide the spread of concrete as a basic building component began to rise and production of valves. Valves smooth and corrugated, with different thicknesses and mechanical properties – all of this is extremely important in the construction such impressive facilities, which is a modern multi-storey buildings in which we live. A key function of reinforcing bars and their purpose – to complement the concrete structures.

The success of concrete as the main component in construction related, of course, with its low cost and surprising property: concrete and steel complement each other. Where conventional concrete would not survive the load, withstand steel, which is much better load transfer in tension and shear. A concrete is significantly more resistant to weather conditions and provides the compressive strength. Improving technology has gradually led to the fact that there was a need for more perfect metal. Then the company started production of valves, corresponding to the increased requirements for heat resistance and corrosion resistance. New stamps of reinforcing rods is much easier to tolerate high temperatures and almost collapse under the influence of aggressive environment of the time. It plays a very important role in high-tech building, when erected homes in dozens of floors, where every detail must endure the load for many years. Similarly, the increased resistance of the new material played a significant role if the "high-rise" there is a fire: ordinary concrete collapses on the temperature and the standard I-section may start to "curl up". But reinforced concrete structures of the latest generation of conventional fire not fear. The most durable grade fittings made from stainless steel, which has high viscosity and elasticity, and applied in other areas: automotive industry (production of body parts of vehicles), mining industries. In addition, the fittings used in road construction high quality. The famous German autobahns are made just by using concrete slabs, which use high-quality fixed fittings. The quality of this type of metal can use it and when irregular loads, and in cases where it is important to avoid structural damage due to metal fatigue. In conclusion we can say that now in Russia and in St. Petersburg in particular, practically all possible types of metal. Such companies as "Anta" produces and sells all kinds of metal and, in particular, the reinforcement in St. Petersburg for many years and are responsible suppliers. Supplied quality control and reputation of the firm will allow you to be sure that you get a proven product that will last.

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